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This is a working document. It has been prepared to facilitate the exchange of knowledge and to stimulate discussion. The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the policies or views of UNICEF or of the United Nations.

The report was prepared by Rufus Edwards, University of California, Irvine, in collaboration with UNICEF Mongolia, Mongolia’s Public Health Institute and the Mongolian Public Health Professionals Association. We are also grateful for the thoughtful comments and advice received from Prof. Kirk Smith, University of California, Berkeley; Sanjaasuren Oyun, former Minister of Environment and Green Development of Mongolia, and Alex Heikens, Senior Adviser for Climate and Environment, UNICEF Headquarters.

The peer reviewers were: Basil Rodriques, Regional Advisor Health, UNICEF Regional Office East Asia and Pacific; Hayalnesh Tarekegn, Programme Officer, Pneumonia & Diarrhea Child Health, UNICEF Headquarters; Davaasambuu Enkhmaa, National Center for Maternal and Child Health, Mongolia; Batmunkh Munkhbat, National Institute of Medical Sciences, Mongolia. Appendixes 1, 2 and 3 of the report are drawn from the rapid assessment performed by Enkhjargal Altangerel and Agni Baljinnyam of the Mongolian Public Health Professionals Association.

This report is part of the project on “Children and Environmental Change in Mongolia” implemented by UNICEF Mongolia with the aim of addressing air pollution-related health impacts on children living in Ulaanbaatar and helping to develop mitigation measures.

Дэлгэрэнгүйг эндээс үзнэ үү


UNGASS 2010 Country Progress Report

Since the first reported HIV case in 1992 a total of 62 cumulative cases have been identified in Mongolia with another 376 HIV cases estimated (2009). Of the detected cumulative cases there have been  14 cases of AIDS, with 9 of them having died as of 2009. The 0.02% HIV prevalence is low, in comparison to its neighboring countries, Russia and China suggesting that HIV is not a widespread concern in Mongolia. However, it is important to note that there has been a surge in cases with 92% of all cumulative cases identified during the last five years (Figure 1). Furthermore, in just the two years since the 2008 UNGASS Country Progress Report, the number of cumulative cases detected rose 69% from 36 cases hinting at a potential spread.


The Third National Report on the Implementation of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in 2007-2008 is a policy and recommendation document which analyses and summarises the current social and economic situation of the country and makes recommendations on measures to further intensify the implementation in accordance with State Great Hural (SGH) Resolution No. 25 of 2005 and SGH Resolution No.13 of 2008.
The Third National Report aims to monitor and evaluate the implementation of each target in line with policy recommendations and conclusions that were reflected in the previous Second National Report. The Report has been developed at the government level and was shared with representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGO), civil society and academia to consult and reflect their views and positions.


The 100% Condom Use Programme (CUP) was piloted in Darkhan-Uul aimag in Mongolia in 2002 by the National Centre for Communicable Diseases (NCCD), Ministry of Health through the technical support from WHO country and regional offices.

This was expanded to Selenge and Dornod in 2003, with funding support from the Global Fund; it was expanded nationwide to 21 provinces by 2008. A guideline was developed in 2006 to support nationwide expansion of the programme.

From the time it was initially introduced in the country up to the present, there was only one documentation of the Mongolian experience from its first pilot site in Darkhan-Uul aimag. Since then, there is no review of the progress of implementation of this programme in the context of its original purpose. Prior to expansion to new soums and conduct of succeeding training, an external review is warranted to document experiences in the different sites, identify effective strategies and barriers to implementation; as well as, to provide key recommendations for improvement of the programme in the context of Mongolia setting and its sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV situation.

Health Sector Strategic Master Plan (2006-2015), Volume 1

There has been an increasing need to improve the integration and coordination of policies, projects and programs in the health sector and to change health services to meet client needs, in relation with reforms and changes in all spheres of political, social and economical life over the last couple of years.
I am very pleased to present the Health sector Strategic Master Plan, a comprehensive document identifying direction and actions for the short, medium and long term development of the health sector during 2006-2015, initiated by the Ministry of Health, developed through the financial support of the JICWELS and approved by the Government. The Master plan comprises 7 key areas and 24 strategies.
The three companion documents, comprising the resource envelope, planning, budgeting, monitoring and evaluation tools required to implement this plan also come with this plan.
The Health sector Strategic Master Plan serves as a reference document describing the concept of policy reform in improving the health for all the people of Mongolia till 2015, and is aimed to change the paradigm of the health services.


1. Introduction

1. In Recognition of the severity of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, international organizations, policymakers, and donors have made bold declarations and set targets for curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS, mitigating its impact, and extending treatment access. For example, the millennium Development goals (MGDs), defined by the international community to serve as a framework for measuring country development progress, aim to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015. in addition, in 2001, 189 nations adopted the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS at the first ever United Nations general assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV/AIDS; this Declaration covers 10 priorities, from prevention to treatment to funding, and was designed as a blueprint to meet the HIV/AIDS MGDs.

2. In its effort to monitor and evaluate the response to the AIDS pandemic and achieve the financing goals set out in the 2001 UNGASS Declaration, UNAIDS seeks to track the flow of financial resources from funding source to actual expenditure. This data is then used to measure national commitment and action, which is an important component of the UNGASS Declaration. In that respect, UNAIDS supports the implementation of a National HIV/AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA), which is a National HIV/AIDS Spending assessment (NASA), which is a comprehensive and systematic methodology used to determine the flow of resources intended to combat HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries.

Mongolian National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS and STIs (2009 – 2015)

Mongolia is a large country with a small population.  It has harsh weather, while many people still live the traditional, nomadic life of herders, growing numbers live in the capital city.  Currently, more than 1 million of Mongolia’s 2.8 million people are registered residents of the city of Ulaanbaatar.
As of October 2009, Mongolia is a low Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevalence country with 61 reported HIV cases. The control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the prevention of an HIV epidemic has been a priority for the Government of Mongolia since the 1980s. Key accomplishments include the establishment of a National HIV, AIDS and STI Reference Centre in 1987, ratification of the first AIDS Law in 1994 and its amendment in 2004, and the development and approval of the first National HIV and AIDS Strategy in 2003. Since 2006, the Government of Mongolia has strengthened its political commitment by re-establishing the National committee on HIV/AIDS (NCA) under the auspices of the Deputy Prime Minister as Chair. A full-time National Programme Manager and a secretariat recruited in 2008 provide policy, operational and administrative support to the NCA.
The decision to develop a second national strategic plan for Mongolia was the result of an increasing awareness of the significant vulnerabilities and risks which could expose young Mongolians to HIV and AIDS. Therefore, the National Strategic Plan 2006-2010 for HIV/ AIDS prevention was developed in consultation and collaboration with various sectors and stakeholders.
While implementing this strategy, the NCA identified some shortcomings of the strategy in terms of prioritizing strategic directions and operationalizing it in a multi-sectoral setting. It was thus decided to revise the strategy and align it with the MDG-based long term National development policy through the year 2015.  
In February 2008, the NCA requested the assistance of the AIDS Strategy Action Plan service hosted by the World Bank on behalf of UNAIDS in reviewing Mongolia’s National Strategic Plan 2006-2010. This led to the AIDS Strategy Action Plan commissioning an independent international peer review of the strategy. While the reviewers noted the benefits of a comprehensive response, given the epidemiology of HIV in Mongolia, they found that the National Strategic Plan 2006-2010 was too broad, and the actions proposed too general.  Especially noting that the strategy comments on scarce capacity and human resources, the reviewers suggested a more specific and focused strategy that closely matches the pattern of the epidemic.  The fundamental basis of a good strategy is “knowing your epidemic”, and assessing what is and is not working in order to ensure that the response closely matches the specific country situation.  For this reason, in September 2008, an international review team commissioned by the Ministry of Health and the NCA, and facilitated by the UN Mongolia, conducted an assessment of Mongolia’s multi-sectoral response to HIV, AIDS and STIs. The main purpose of the review was to evaluate the impact, effectiveness and adequacy of the national response to HIV, AIDS and STIs from 2003 to 2008 and to provide recommendations to improve the programmatic and technical aspects of HIV, AIDS and STIs prevention, care and treatment.

Joint Review of the National TB Programme, Mongolia (2008)

Mongolia is a large, sparsely populated (1.7 persons per km2), landlocked country located in Central Asia, south of the Russian Federation and north of the People’s Republic of China. In 2007, Mongolia had a population of 2.635 million people, of which 39% (or 1,034,800) lived in the capital city, Ulaanbaatar. An additional 22.2% lived in aimag (provincial) centres, and the remaining 39.4% lived in rural areas (soums and/or baghs). Due to increased urbanization, rapid socio-economic development, and continued rural- to- urban migration, 42.8% of the total population resided in the rural areas in 2000; by 2007, this figure had decreased to 39.4 percent. An estimated 36% of the population lives in poverty, as do 74% of TB patients.

Since 1990, Mongolia has been undergoing a demographic transition defined by a sharp reduction in fertility and death rates. The growth rate of the population has decreased from 2.7% in 1990 to 1.7% in 2003- 2005. The average life expectancy in 2004 was 61 years for men, and 69 for women.  The top five causes of death for all ages in 2002 were cerebrovascular disease, liver cancer, ischaemic heart disease, road traffic accidents and perinatal conditions.  Tuberculosis ranked sixth.


Mongolian Education Sector’s Response and Readiness to HIV and AIDS: Sector review (2009)

1. HIV and AIDS Situation in Mongolia

This report is a part of UNESCO’s education sector analytical and technical work in Mongolia and has been carried out by the Open Society Forum, a Mongolian national NGO. The analytical work commissioned by UNESCO consists of this report and a draft Education Sector HIV and AIDS Strategy.

The primary goal of this report is to assess response and readiness of the Mongolian education sector to effectively contribute to prevention of HIV and AIDS spread in Mongolia. In very general terms, Response criterion concerns existing HIV education policies and programs and allows assessing accessibility of formal and non-formal curriculum on HIV prevention, availability and quality of textbooks to support the HIV curriculum and availability of trained teachers to deliver quality HIV education through formal and non-formal education structures. Readiness criterion focuses on policy environment supporting effective delivery of quality HIV education, including central government’ analytical, management and coordination capacity to provide effective multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder coordination for maximizing outcomes of HIV prevention efforts, to create enabling environment for broad school-based, workplace and community education policies.         

Comprehensive Review of the National Response to HIV and STIs in Mongolia (2008)

The current review follows an external review in 2002 and an internal review in 2004. NSPs for HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were developed in 2003 and revised in 2004 and 2006. The current NSP 2006-2010 is currently under review, a process which began in 2007 and which is scheduled to be completed following the current review. The United Nations (UN) system in Mongolia, the National Committee on HIV/AIDS, and the Ministry of Health (MOH) requested UNAIDS Mongolia to coordinate appointment of a review team and provide the necessary support for carrying out a comprehensive review of the national response to HIV and STIs in Mongolia. The present review arrived into a situation of continuing political transition following the civil unrest and state of emergency that followed national elections in July 2008.
өмнөх 1 дараах

Secondary Content